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Clinical Manual and Review of Transesophageal Echocardiography, 2e
3. Clinical Perioperative Echocardiography
Chapter 17. Transesophageal Echocardiography for Heart Failure Surgery
Susan M. Martinelli, Joseph G. Rogers, Carmelo A. Milano
Transesophageal Echocardiography for Heart Failure Surgery: Introduction
cardiac surgery procedures; heart failure.
The epidemic of heart failure is a worldwide problem that is anticipated to increase with both an aging population and the improved survival from cardiac complications producing left ventricular systolic dysfunction (e.g. myocardial infarction). Increasingly, these patients who survive a serious cardiac injury but have persistent ventricular dysfunction precluding normal end-organ function experience a poor quality of life and high rates of morbidity and mortality. At the age of 40, the lifetime risk of developing heart failure is 20%, and the 1-year heart failure mortality rate is 20%.
The number of hospitalizations for heart failure has tripled between the 1970s and 2004, and contemporary data indicate that heart failure was the primary or secondary cause of 3.8 million annual admissions in the United States.
It is estimated that the direct and indirect costs of heart failure in the United States will exceed $37 billion in 2009, highlighting the economic importance of this disease.
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